The Non-Obvious Solidarity:
the Problem of Empirical Study of Hardly Verified Social States
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Prof., the Institute of Social Sciences of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia email@example.com
Cand. Sci. (Philos.), Assoc. Prof., the Institute of Economics, Management and Law of the Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia kowrigina.galina2017@ yandex.ru
The principal objects of sociological science in the most general form can be classified into the obvious/ easily verifiable, and the unobvious/difficultly verifiable ones. Social solidarity is in the second row. Being one of the basic research phenomena of sociology, solidarity, at the same time, is one of the most complex objects for empirical study. Purely sociological description and analysis of this phenomenon suffer from well-known empirical one-sidedness and methodological undevelopment, because solidarity, which is a complex phenomenon, can be most adequately described in the same – complex approach synthesizing descriptive matrices of sociology, psychology and sociobiology.
Alexandrova Yu.A. (2017) Social and political relations in modern Russia: on assessing the degree of consolidation and disintegration. Vestnik Povolzhskogo instituta upravleniya [Bulletin of the Volga Management Institute]. Vol. 17. No. 2: 11–16. (In Russ.)
Aristotle. (1983) Writings. In 4 vol. Vol. 4. Moscow: Mysl’. (In Russ.)
Bergson A. (1994) Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Moscow: Canon. (In Russ.)
Bowles S. (2009) Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Science. Vol. 324: 1293–1298.
Boyd R., Richerson P. (1990) Culture and Cooperation. In: Beyond Self-Interest. Ed. by J. J. Mansbridge. Chicago: Chicago University Press: 111–132.
Choi J. K., Bowles S. (2007) The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science. Vol. 318: 636–640.
Cicero. (1993) About old age. About friendship. About duties. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)
Cicero. (1994) Dialogues: On the state. About the laws. Moscow: Ladomir, Nauka. (In Russ.)
Comte A. (1875) System of Positive Polity. Vol. 2. In: Social Statics, Or The Abstract Theory of Human Order. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. URL: https://archive.org/details/systemofpositive02comt (accessed 16.05.2018).
Comte A. (1910) The Spirit of Positive Philosophy (The Word of Positive Thinking). Saint Petersburg. URL: http:// www.100bestbooks.ru/files/Kont_Duh_pozitivnoy_filosofii.pdf (accessed 15.05.2018). (In Russ.)
Efremenko D., Evseeva Y. (2012) Studies of Social Solidarity in Russia: Tradition and Modern Trends. American Sociologist. No. 43: 349–365.
Efremenko D.V., Evseeva Ya.V., Simonova O. A. (2014) Solidarity and altruism as factors of social cohesion (introductory article). In: Social Solidarity and Altruism: Sociological Tradition and Modern Interdisciplinary Research. Ser. “Theory and history of sociology”. Center of sociology and soc. Psychology. Ed. D. V. Efremenko. Moscow: INION: 5–15. (In Russ.)
Eremicheva G. V. (2010) Social inequality is a negative factor in the process of consolidation. In: Conditions and Opportunities for the Consolidation of Russian Society. SI RAS. Ed. A. V. Duk, I. I. Eliseev. St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya: 219–249. (In Russ.)
Gofman A. B. (2013) Solidarity or rules, Durkheim or Hayek? On two forms of social integration. In: Sociological Yearbook – 2012. Ed. N. E. Pokrovsky, D. V. Efremenko. Moscow: INION RAN: 97–167. (In Russ.)
Hauert C., Traulsen A., Brandt H., Nowak M. A., Sigmund K. (2007) Via freedom to coercion: the emergence of costly punishment. Science. Vol. 316: 1905–1907.
Hill S. (2010) Europe’s Promise: Why the European Way is the Best Hope in an Insecure Age. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Jaeggy A. V., Stevens J. M.G., Van Schaik C. P. (2010) Tolerant food sharing and reciprocity is precluded by despotism among bonobos but not chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Vol. 143 (1): 41–51.
Kalashnikov K. N., Sharov V. V. (2017) Labor relations in Russia: between partnership and confrontation. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 4: 73–81 (In Russ.)
Karelina M. V. (2005) Regional trade unions in social dialogue. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 3: 62–70 (In Russ.)
Karmadonov O. A. (2012) Norms and empathy as factors of social transformations. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 4: 1–11. (In Russ.)
Karmadonov O. A. (2015) Solidarity, Integration, Conjunction. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 2: 3–12. (In Russ.)
Karmadonov O. A., Kovrigina G. D. (2017) Socio-psychological factors of macro- and microsocial consolidation in the youth environment. Nauchnyy rezul’tat. Sotsiologiya i upravleniye [Scientific Result. Sociology and management]. Vol. 3. No. 2: 32–47 (In Russ.)
Karmadonov O. A., Zverev M. K. (2012) Consolidation of Russian Society: Flows and Obstacles. Irkutsk: Izd-vo IGU (In Russ.)
Khaliy I. A., Aksenova O. V. (2010) Activity of civil society structures: orientation to interaction of social subjects. In: Social Factors of Consolidation of Russian Society: Sociological Dimension. Moscow: Novyi Khronograf: 222–249. (In Russ.)
Kosharnaya G. B. (2015) Institutional and interpersonal trust in the consolidation of Russian society. Vlast’ [Power]. No. 9: 125–129. (In Russ.)
Lokosov V. V. (2014) Socio-economic factors of the consolidation of Russian society: the regional aspect. Ekonomika regiona [The economy of the region]. No. 3: 74–82. (In Russ.)
Maksimova S. G., Morkovkina A. G. (2017) The image of Russia in the representations of the population of modern border regions. Siberian Socium. V. 1. No. 1: 76–83. (In Russ.)
Molodov О. B. (2016) Social consolidation in the conditions of a new reality: the problem of social activity and the identity of the population of the region. Problemy razvitiya territorii [Problems of Territory Development]. No. 2 (82): 82–97. (In Russ.)
Moskvin L. B. (2011) Confidence as the most important prerequisite of consensus in society. In: Consent in Society as a Condition for the Development of Modern Russia (Political and Social Aspects). Moscow: IS RAN: 67–78. (In Russ.)
Plato. (1990) Alcibiades I. In: Plato. Coll. Works. In 4 vol. Vol. I. Moscow: Mysl’: 220–267. (In Russ.)
Plato. The State. Book II. PSYLIB. Self-knowledge and self-development. Psychological Library of the Kyiv Foundation for the Promotion of Mental Culture. URL: http://psylib.org.ua/books/plato01/26gos02.htm (accessed 20.05.2018) (In Russ.)
Polushkevich O. A. (2015) Social Empathy: Issues of the Consolidation of Russian Society. Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ekonomicheskiye i sotsial’nyye peremeny [Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes]. No. 6 (130): 3–18 (In Russ.)
Ridley M. (2014) The Origin of Altruism and Virtue: from Instincts to Cooperation. Moscow: Eksmo (In Russ.)
Rusinova N. L., Panova L. V. (2010) Social inequalities and limited resources of social capital as obstacles to the consolidation of Russian society. In: Conditions and Opportunities for the Consolidation of Russian Society. SI RAS. Ed. A. V. Duka, I. I. Eliseeva. Saint Petersburg.: Nestor-Istoriya: 164–218 (In Russ.)
Solidarity and Prosocial Behavior. An Integration of Sociological and Psychological Perspectives. (2006) Ed. by D. Fetchenhauer, A. Flache, B. Buunk, S. Lindenberg. New York: Springer.
Trivers R. L. (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology. Vol. 46: 35–57.
Trofimova I. N. (2017) Structure and dynamics of institutional trust in modern Russian society. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 5: 68–75. (In Russ.)
Yadov V. A. (2002) Solidarity of Russians in everyday life and on a national scale. Obshchestvo i ekonomika [Society and Economics]. No. 12: 90–94. (In Russ.)
Yanitsky O. N. (2004) Risk-solidarity: the Russian version. INTER. No. 2–3: 52–62. (In Russ.)
Yanitsky O. N. (2010) Mobilization Structure of Civil Society. The official site of the IS RAS. URL: http: //www.isras.ru/publ. html? Id = 1924 (accessed 16.05.2018). (In Russ.)