Digital Devices Use by Pre-School Children Today

Digital Devices Use by Pre-School Children Today

Veraksa A.N.

Cand. Sci. (Psych.), Prof., Head of Department Educational Psychology and Pedagogy on the Faculty of Psychology Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Bukhalenkova D.A.

Cand. Sci. (Psych.), Assoc. Prof. Department of Educational Psychology and Pedagogy on the Faculty of Psychology Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Chichinina E.A.

Pediatric Neuropsychologist, “Children’s Speech Academy”, Moscow, Russia.

Almazova O.V.

Cand. Sci. (Psych.), Assoc. Prof., Department of Developmental Psychology on the Faculty of Psychology Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

ID of the Article: 8185

The research was supported by RFBR, grant No. 19-29-14088 mk.

For citation:

Veraksa A.N., Bukhalenkova D.A., Chichinina E.A., Almazova O.V. Digital Devices Use by Pre-School Children Today. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2020. No 6. P. 82-92


The aim of this study was to explore interaction of preschool children with digital technologies devices. This survey was conducted in February-March 2019 involving 417 children aged 6–7 years (202 boys and 215 girls), pupils of the older groups of Moscow kindergartens. Data was collected using semi-structured interview with children. Interview contains 8 questions re. children’s preferences and amount of digital devices usage. According to our results, 94% of children use some kind of digital device for different purposes and only 6% of children use it only for calls or do not use it at all. Of all the media activities, children most frequently participate in playing and watching videos or movies. There were found outspoken differences between boys and girls in digital devices usage.

children; digital devices; play; gender differences; semi-structured interview


Annual Report “Children. Media Consumption. 2017”. (2018) Modern Media Research Institute. URL: http:// (accessed 15.04.2020). (In Russ.)

Assathiany R., Guery E., Caron F., Cheymol J., Picherot G., Foucaud P., Gelbert N. (2018) Children and Screens: A Survey by French Pediatricians. Archives de Pédiatrie. Vol. 25. No. 2: 84–88. DOI: 10.1016/j.arcped.2017.11.001.

Brito R., Dias P. (2019) Technologies and Children up to 8 Years Old: What Changes in One Year? Observatorio. Vol. 13. No. 2: 68–86. DOI: 10.15847/obsOBS13220191366.

Gjelaj M., Buza K., Shatri K., Zabeli N. (2020) Digital Technologies in Early Childhood: Attitudes and Practices of Parents and Teachers in Kosovo. International Journal of Instruction. Vol. 13. No. 1: 165–184. DOI: 10.29333/iji.2020.13111a.

Hawi N.S., Samaha M., Griffiths M.D. (2019) The Digital Addiction Scale for Children: Development and Validation. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Vol. 22. No. 12: 771–778. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2019.0132.

Horowitz-Kraus T., Hutton J.S. (2017) Brain Connectivity in Children is Increased by the Time They Spend Reading Books and Decreased by the Length of Exposure to Screen-based Media. Acta Paediatrica. Vol. 107. No. 4: 685–693. DOI: 10.1111/apa.14176.

Huber B., Highfield K., Kaufman J. (2018a) Detailing the Digital Experience: Parent Reports of Children’s Media Use in the Home Learning Environment. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol. 49. No. 5: 821–833. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12667.

Huber B., Yeates M., Meyer D., Fleckhammer L., Kaufman J. (2018b) The Effects of Screen Media Content on Young Children’s Executive Functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Vol. 170: 72–85. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2018.01.006.

Isikoglu Erdogan N., Johnson J.E., Dong P.I., Qiu Z. (2019) Do Parents Prefer Digital Play? Examination of Parental Preferences and Beliefs in Four Nations. Early Childhood Education Journal. Vol. 47: 131–142. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-018-0901-2.

Karabanova O.A., Molchanov S.V. (2018) Risks of Negative Impact of Information Products on Mental Development and Behavior of Children and Adolescents. Natsional'nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [National Psychological Journal]. No. 3(31): 37–46. DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0304. (In Russ.)

Kostyrka-Allchorne K., Cooper N.R., Simpson A. (2017) The Relationship between Television Exposure and Children’s Cognition and Behaviour: A Systematic Review. Developmental Review. Vol. 44: 19–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.dr.2016.12.002.

Lee D.Y., Roh H.W., Kim S.J., Park E.J., Yoo H., Suh S., Shin Y. (2019) Trends in Digital Media Use in Korean Preschool Children. Journal of Korean Medical Science. Vol. 34. No. 41: e263. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e263.

Lillard A.S., Hui Li, Boguszewski K. (2015) Television and Children's Executive Function. Advances in Child Development and Behavior. Vol. 48: 219–248. DOI: 10.1016/bs.acdb.2014.11.006.

Nevski E., Siibak A. (2016) Mediation Practices of Parents and Older Siblings in Guiding Toddlers’ Touchscreen Technology Use: An ethnographic Case Study. Media Education Studies & Research. Vol. 7: 320–340. DOI: 10.14605/MED721609.

Przybylski A.K., Weinstein N. (2017) Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children’s Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a Population-Based Study. Child Development. Vol. 90. No. 1: 56–65. DOI:10.1111/cdev.13007.

Radesky J.S., Christakis D.A. (2016) Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior. Pediatric Clinics of North America. Vol. 63. No. 5: 827–839. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2016.06.006.

Smirnova E.O. (2019) Specific Features of Modern Preschool Childhood. Natsional'nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [National Psychological Journal]. No. 2(34): 25–32. DOI: 10.11621/npj.2019.0205. (In Russ.)

Smirnova E.O., Matushkina N.Yu. (2017) Workshop on Virtual Reality of Modern Childhood. Kul'turnoistoricheskaya psikhologiya [Cultural-Historical Psychology]. Vol. 13. No. 2: 71–76. DOI: 10.17759/ chp.2017130208. (In Russ.)

Smirnova E.O., Smirnova S.Yu., Sheina E.G. (2019) Parents’ Attitude to Use of Digital Technology by Young Children. Sovremennaya zarubezhnaya psikhologiya [Journal of Modern Foreign Psychology]. Vol. 8. No. 4: 79–87. DOI: 10.17759/jmfp.2019080408. (In Russ.)

Sobkin V.S., Fedotova A.V. (2018) Adolescent in Social Networks: on the Issue of Social Psychological Well-being. Natsional'nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [National Psychological Journal]. Vol. 11. No. 3: 23–30. DOI: 10.11621/ npj.2018.0303. (In Russ.)

Sobkin V.S., Skobeltsyna K.N. (2011) Game Preferences of Modern Preschoolers (Based on Survey among Parents). Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie [Psychological Science and Education]. Vol. 16. No. 2: 39–48. (In Russ.)

Sobkin V.S., Skobeltsyna K.N., Ivanova A.I. (2012) The Structure of Leisure of a Modern Preschooler: Parents’ Opinions. In: Sobkin V.S. (ed.) Sociology of Education. Works on Sociology of Education. Vol. 16. Moscow: ISO RAO: 32–44. (In Russ.)

Soldatova G.U. (2018) Digital Socialization in the Cultural-Historical Paradigm: a Changing Child in a Changing World. Sotsial'naya psikhologiya i obshchestvo [Social Psychology and Society]. Vol. 9. No. 3: 71–80. DOI:10.17759/ sps.2018090308. (In Russ.)

Soldatova G.U., Shlyapnikov V.N. (2015) Using of Digital Devices by Children of Preschool Age. Nizhegorodskoe obrazovanie [Education in Nizhny Novgorod]. No. 3: 78–85. (In Russ.)

Soldatova G.U., Teslavskaya O.I. (2018) Interpersonal Relations of Russian Adolescents in Social Networks. Natsional'nyy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [National Psychological Journal]. No. 3(31): 12–22. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.11621/npj.2018.0302.

Soldatova G.U., Vishneva A.E. (2019) Features of the Development of the Cognitive Sphere in Children with Different Online Activities: Is There a Golden Mean? Konsul'tativnaya psikhologiya i psikhoterapiya [Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy]. 2019. Vol. 27. No. 3: 97–118. (In Russ.) DOI: 10.17759/cpp.2019270307.

Tandon P.S., Zhou C., Lozano P., Christakis D.A. (2011) Preschoolers’ Total Daily Screen Time at Home and by Type of Child Care. The Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 158. No. 2: 297–300. DOI: 10.1016/j. jpeds.2010.08.005.

The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Kids Age Zero to Eight, 2017. (2017) Common Sense Media. URL: (accessed 15.04.2020).

Venger L.A., Marzinkovskaya T.D., Venger A.L. (1994) Is Your Child Ready for School? Moscow: Znanie. (In Russ.)

Veraksa A.N., Bukhalenkova D.A. (2017) Computer Game-based Technology in the Development of Preschoolers’ Executive Functions. Rossiyskiy psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [Russian Psychological Journal]. Vol. 14. No. 3: 106–133. DOI: 10.21702/rpj.2017.3.6. (In Russ.)

Vygotskii L.S. (2004) Play and its Role in a Child Mental Development. In: Psychology of Child Development. Moscow: EKSMO: 200–223. (In Russ.)

Content No 6, 2020