Gendered Characteristics of Xenophobia (Review of Foreign Studies)
Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Deputy Director, The Research Institute of Education and Science, Moscow, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
The results of foreign studies of inter-gender differences in the distribution of different types of xenophobic subjects are summarized. The author analyzes the definitions and concepts of xenophobia taking into account the gender context, on the basis of which it is concluded that there are no domestic works on the gender aspects of xenophobia. As a result of meta-analysis of more than 40 foreign scientific publications, a sample of almost 20 thousand respondents (Europe, the USA, Asian countries) was obtained, the study of which helps to identify gender differences in the prevalence of negative attitudes towards everything non-ethnic. It is concluded that there are significant differences in the prevalence of fear of people of other ethnicities and hostility to everything foreign in men and women from different countries of the world. Although phobias are 2–3 times more common among women than among men, however, different types of xenophobia are noticeably more common among men.
Andel J.V. (1988) Enterprising Life. New York: Harper Business Zondervan Publishing House.
Austin Al. (2015) America Is Not Post-Racial: Xenophobia, Islamophobia, Racism, and the 44th President. New York: Praeger.
Carson R., Butcher J., Mineka S. (2004) Abnormal Psychology. 11th ed. St. Petersburg: Piter. (In Russ.)
Crush J., Ramachandran S. (2010) Xenophobia, International Migration and Development. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. Vol. 11. No. 2: 209–288. DOI: 10.1080/19452821003677327.
Davey G. (1997) Phobias. London: John Wiley.
Doctor R., Kahn A., Adamec C. (2008) The Encyclopedia of Phobias, Fears, and Anxieties. 3rd ed. New York: Facts On File.
Drobizheva L.M. (2010) Ethnicity in Modern Society: New Approaches, Old Misconceptions, Social Practices. Vestnik instituta sotziologii [Bulletin of the Institute of Sociology]. No. 1: 429–442. (In Russ.)
Enikolopov S.N. (2020) Aggression in the World of Aggression: Report at the Summit of Psychologists. Psikhologicheskaya gazeta [Psychological Newspaper]. June 17. URL: https://psy.su/feed/ novinki_uta/off=17/8316/ (accessed 20.09.2020). (In Russ.)
Fiore I. (2008) The Psychological Dynamics that Make People Xenophobic. Rivista di psicolo gia clinica [Journal of Clinical Psychology]. No. 3: 251–274.
Groshev I.V. (2010) Analysis of Current Studies of Gender and Sex-age Characteristics of Sociophobic Mental Disorders Determining Behavioral Personality Patterns. Rossijskiy psikhiatricheskiy zhurnal [Russian Journal of Psychiatry]. No. 3: 16–24. (In Russ.)
Groshev I.V. (2004) Gender and Diseases: An Overview of Current Trials. Sotsiologiya meditsiny [Sociology of Medicine]. No. 2(5): 35–50. (In Russ.)
Gudkov L. (2014) Negative Identity: Articles of 1997–2002. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie; VTsIOM-A. (In Russ.)
Hastings P. (2009) Remove Phobias, Hypnosis and NLP. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
Hervik P. (2015) Xenophobia and Nativism. In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier Ltd.: 796–801. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.12167-1.
Hook D., Eagle G. (2002) Xenophobia: A New Pathology for a New Africa? In: Psychopathology and Social Prejudice. Cape Town: UCT Press: 169–181.
Jolly S.K., DiGiusto G.M. (2014) Xenophobia and Immigrant Contact: French Public Attitudes toward Immigration. The Social Science Journal. Vol. 51. No. 3: 464–473. DOI: 10.1016/j.soscij.2013.09.018.
Jones M., Menzies R. (2000) Danger Expectancies, Self-efficacy and Insight in Spider Phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Vol. 38. No. 6: 585–600. DOI: 10.1016/s0005-7967(99)00076-5.
Juan S. (2012) Who's Afraid Of Butterflies? Our Fears and Phobias Named and Explained. Moscow: Ripol Klassik. (In Russ.)
Kananin A. (2016) Fears: Encyclopedia of Human Phobias. Moscow: Izdatelskie resheniya. (In Russ.)
Kroz M.V., Ratinova N.A. (2005) Socio-psychological and Legal Aspects of Xenophobia. Moscow: Academia. (In Russ.)
Kulikov L.V. (1997) Psychology of Mood. SPb.: Izd-vo Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. (In Russ.)
Khair T. (2016) The New Xenophobia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Lacfte C. (2008) Notes on Phobia. In: The Phobia. Paris: A.L.I.: 234–301. (In Fr.)
Latov Yu.V., Altufyev D.Yu. (2013) Socio-economic Determinants of Xenophobia and Nationalist Extremism / Terrorism. Gumanitarnye nauki. Vestnik finansovogo universiteta [Humanities and Social Sciences. Bulletin of the Financial University]. No. 4(12): 42–48. (In Russ.)
Moosavi L. (2016) Xenophobia. In: The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism. Vol. 5. New York: Wiley-Blackwell: 241–312. DOI: 10.1002/9781118663202.wberen600.
Mukomel V.I. (2014) Xenophobia in the Context of Culture of Trust. Mir Rossii [Universe of Russia]. Vol. 23. No. 1: 137–166. (In Russ.)
Penochet J.C. (2008) Phobic Space Criticisms. In: The Phobia. Paris: A.L.I.: 356–389. (In Fr.)
Pipia K.D. (2017) Xenophobic Sentiments in Russian Public Opinion and the Ways of Preventing them. Cand. Sci. (Sociol.) Dissertation. Moscow. (In Russ.)
Ponomareva M.S. (2005) Age-gender Features of 9–17-aged Schoolchildren’s Emotionality and its Perception by Teachers. Cand. Sci. (Psychol.) Dissertation. SPb.
Rydgren J. (2015) Xenophobia: The Role of Political Articulation / In: Vertovec S. (ed.) The Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies. London: Routledge: 310–316.
Stepanov V.V. (2014) Interethnic Moscow: High Earnings, Mass Phobias, Moderate Tolerance. In: Social Factors of Ethnic Intolerance (Results of Interdisciplinary Research). Moscow: IEA RAN: 37–52. (In Russ.)
Volkova L.V. (2016) Xenophobia in modern society: pathology or norm? // The 19th International Conference “Culture, Personality, Society in Contemporary World: Methodology, Empirical Research Experience”: Collected Proceedings. Yekaterinburg: UrFU Publishing House: 2782–2793. (In Russ.)
Wahl K. (2002) Development of Xenophobia and Aggression. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 26. No. 2: 247–256. DOI: 10.1080/01924036.2002.9678690.
Wittchen H.-U., Vossen A. (1996) Comorbiditate Structures in Anxiety Detection: Hostility and Implications. In: Margraf J. (eds) Textbook of Behavioral Therapy. Vol. 1. Berlin: Springer: 217–233. (In Germ.)
Wolf B. (2009) Wolf Files: Celebrity Phobias. New York: ABC News.
Yakushko O. (2009) Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants. The Counseling Psychologist. Vol. 37. No 1: 36–66. DOI: 10.1177/0011000008316034.