А history of urban sociology in XX century Russia
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Prof., Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper attempts to explicate and evaluate the major time-periods of ‘city planning–urban sociology’ development in the XX century Russia. Basing on interdisciplinary, contextual and activist methods the author presents this evolution as nonlinear interaction of such actors as science, state institutions, professional-civic organizations and urban milieu as such. On the ground of long-term research made by the author following time-periods have been revealed: 1900–20, 1921–41, 1941–53, 1954–75, 1970-mid-1980, 1985–99, and early 2000s. This periodization is conditioned by social order changes, institutional transformations, generational shift, access to resources, and impact of national and global context. Recent trends are as follows. First, a social and infrastructural potential of cities is intensively exploited. Second, globalization turns a citizen into ‘user’, taxpayer and voter. Third, virtualization of urban life reduces socialization potential of cities. Fourth, a majority of young citizens are oriented on acquiring wellbeing ‘here and now.’ Fifth, professional level of cities is going down under pressure of newcomers (migrants, refugees, etc.). Sixth, space-social differentiation and separation of cities is growing. Seventh, Russian cities are under influx of temporary population. Eighth, urban environment becomes more risky as a result of undetected metabolism processes. Ninth, urban planning shrinks and becomes business-oriented. Tenth, former neighborhoods practice is replaced by gated communities in accord with economic or/and social status of their inhabitants.