Did Russians' Welfare Attitudes Change? An Analysis of the Dynamics and Comparison with Other Countries
Cand. Sci. (Sociol.), Senior Researcher, National Research University Higher School of Economics; Senior Researcher, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
The research has received funding from the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics.
The article presents a comparative analysis of the views of Russians on the social policy of the state using the data of the European Social Survey for 2008 and 2016. The results show statistically significant changes in the views on social policy during this period. Social demands of Russians towards the state have slightly decreased in terms of assistance to pensioners, the unemployed and families with children, although they still remain quite high. At the same time, the structure of these welfare attitudes remained unchanged. The Russians’ assessment of the standard of living of retirees and the unemployed slightly improved. Nevertheless, among European countries Russia features, as before, – the most negative assessments of the situation of pensioners and the unemployed. Such assessments of their situation are given by poor Russians. In 2016, the link of the assessment of the financial situation of pensioners and the unemployed became more noticeable with demands for increased state responsibility for helping each of these groups. Between the two groups of indicators, a stricter linear relationship is observed with regard to pensioners – the worse the average citizens of countries estimate the standard of living of pensioners, the more they consider its improvement a responsibility of the state. Russians’ views on unemployment benefits differ significantly from people in most European countries.
Грязнова О.С., Магун В.С. Запросы жителей европейских стран на государственную социальную поддержку и их базовые ценности // SPERO. 2012. № 17. С. 7–34. [Gryaznova O.S., Magun V.S. (2012) Requests of Residents of European Countries for State Social Support and Their Basic Values. SPERO: Social'naya politika: ekspertiza, rekomendacii, obzory [SPERO: Social Policy: Expertise, Recommendations, Overviews]. No. 17: 7–34. (In Russ.)].
Салмина А.А. Установки населения по отношению к социальной роли государства в России и Германии // Власть. 2015. № 10. С. 171–181. [Salmina A.A. (2015) Social Attitudes of the Population towards the Social Role of the State in Russia and Germany. Vlast' [The Authority]. No. 10: 171–181. (In Russ.)].
Alesina A., Fuchs-Schuendeln N. (2007) Good-Bye Lenin (or Not?): The Effect of Communism on People's Preferences. The American Economic Review. Vol. 97. No. 4: 1507–1528.
Bean C., Papadakis E. (1998) A Comparison of Mass Attitudes Towards the Welfare State in Different Institutional Regimes, 1985–1990. International Journal of Public Opinion Research. Vol. 10. No. 3: 211–236.
Cook F.L., Barrett E.J. (1992) Support for the American Welfare State. New York: Columbia University Press.
Cousins M. (2005) European Welfare States: Comparative Perspectives. London: Sage Publications.
Gryaznova O. (2013) Factors Affecting Welfare Attitudes in Different Types of Welfare States: Personal Interests and Values. Higher School of Economics Research Paper. No. 18: 1–40.
Jowell R. (1998) How Comparative is Comparative Research? American Behavioural Scientist. Vol. 42. No. 2: 168–177.
Halvorsen K. et al. (2007) Social Justice, Legitimacy and the Welfare State. London: Ashgate Publishing.
Jakobsen T. (2011) Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion? Social Indicators Research. Vol. 101. No. 3: 323–340.
Kumlin S., Svallfors S. (2007) Social Stratification and Political Articulation: Why Attitudinal Class Differences Vary Across Countries. In: Mau S., Veghte B. (eds) Social Justice, Legitimacy and the Welfare State. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Larsen C.A. (2008) The Institutional Logic of Welfare Attitudes: How Welfare Regimes Influence Public Support. Comparative Political Studies. Vol. 41. No. 2: 145–169.
Linos K., West M. (2003) Self-interest, Social Beliefs, and Attitudes to Redistribution: Re-addressing the Issue of Cross-national Variation. European Sociological Review. Vol. 19. No. 4: 393–409.
Lipsmeyer C. (2003) Welfare and the Discriminating Public: Evaluating Entitlement Attitudes in Post-Communist Europe. The Public Studies Journal. Vol. 31. No. 4: 545–564.
Myant M., Drahokoupil J. (2015) Welfare and Redistribution in Post-communist Countries. In: Perugini C., Fabrizio Pompei F. (eds) Inequalities During and After Transition in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Naumann E. (2014) The Dynamics of Welfare Attitudes in Times of Welfare State Retrenchment. Mannheim, Universität Mannheim, Diss.
Ochsner M. et al. (2018) Russian versus European Welfare Attitudes: Evidence from the 2016 European Social Survey. London: European Social Survey.
Roosma F. et al. (2013) The Multidimensionality of Welfare State Attitudes: A European Cross-National Study. Social Indicators Research. Vol. 113. No. 1: 235–255.
Roosma F. et al. (2014) The Preferred Role and Perceived Performance of the Welfare State: European Welfare Attitudes from a Multidimensional Perspective. Social Science Research. No. 44: 200–210.
Rose R., Makkai T. (1995) Consensus or Dissensus about Welfare in Post-Communist Societies? European Journal of Political Research. No. 28: 203–224.
Salmina A.A. (2014) Social Attitudes towards Welfare Policies in Russia and Other European Countries. International Social Work. Vol. 57. No. 5: 459–469.
Saxonberg S., Sirovátka T. (2006) Failing Family Policy in Post-communist Central Europe. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice. Vol. 8. No. 2: 185–202.
Svallfors S. (1997) Worlds of Welfare and Attitudes to Redistribution: a Comparison of Eight Western Countries. European Sociological Review. Vol. 13. No. 3: 283–304.
Veghte B. et al. (2007) Social Policy Preferences, National Defense and Political Polarization in the United States. In: Mau S., Veghte B. (eds) Social Justice, Legitimacy and the Welfare State. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.