Ethnic Aspects of Alcoholization Process in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia):
Models of Consumption
Cand. Sci. (Sociol.), Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone of SB RAS, Yakutsk, Russia. email@example.com
Cand. Sci. (Law), Associate Prof. M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Post-graduate Student, M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia email@example.com
The subject of the study is destructive consequences of alcohol addiction in Yakutia. The goal is to study ethnic aspects of alcohol consumption and relevant destructive social processes. The hypothesis of the study suggests that destructive social processes associated with alcohol consumption among local population proceed with more serious consequences than among Russian population. The following methods were applied: 1) sociological – anonymous questionnaire survey of residents of different regions of Yakutia (N = 4709); 2) statistical – selection, grouping and analysis of statistical data for the region of the republic, differing in the number of shares of the Russian and Yakut population. Following differences between ethnic groups in the development of destructive processes associated with alcohol were revealed: 1) the Russian population consumes more alcoholic beverages, as evidenced by statistics on the volume of alcohol sales and the results of a sociological survey; 2) a greater volume of alcohol consumption among Russians leads to a high incidence of alcoholism and alcoholic psychoses, compared with Yakuts; 3) Russians are more likely to die from the circulatory system diseases, neoplasms and diseases of the digestive system, the proportion of deaths at working age is also higher; 4) Yakuts have a significantly higher mortality rate from external causes (suicide, homicide, accidental alcohol poisoning); 5) in areas where the Yakut population predominantly lives, the level of “drunken” crime is high compared with the “Russian” regions. These results indicate an uneven flow of destructive social processes associated with alcohol consumption among the ethnic groups in question. Conclusions: The study shows that the alcoholization models for Russians and Yakuts are significantly different.For Russians, frequent alcohol consumption leads to increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and digestive diseases. For Yakuts, despite a low level of alcohol consumption, consequences of aggressive and auto-aggressive behavior are noticeable, as seen from the statistics of crimes committed while intoxicated and the number of deaths from murders and suicides. Russians have a “slow” scenario of the onset of destructive processes in the form of a gradual development of alcoholism, deaths from various diseases that develop as a result of prolonged alcohol consumption. Yakuts are characterized by a “quick” scenario of the development of destructive consequences, when alcohol leads to a loss of self-control, provokes aggressive behavior, which is the reason for the high level of criminalization and mortality from external causes.