Precarious Employment Is a Phenomenon of the Modern Economy

Precarious Employment Is a Phenomenon of the Modern Economy

Toshchenko Zh.T.

Corresponding Member of RAS, Head of Department of the Russian State Humanitarian University; Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

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The article is based on the result of RSF project No. 18-18-00024.

For citation:

Toshchenko Zh.T. Precarious Employment Is a Phenomenon of the Modern Economy. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2020. No 8. P. 3-13


The article analyzes the variety of employment forms. A characteristic is given of the most common definitions of employment, which were offered in interpreting the real-life situation of attracting and using labor at various stages of industrial and post-industrial development. Particular attention is paid to special, specific forms of employment – non-standard, informal, atypical, unsustainable, as well as their adequacy to existing economic realities. It is shown that all of them, reflecting the prevailing practice in the use of labor, have limitations in characterizing the possibilities of using human potential and their compliance with the officially approved principles of the use of labor. It is argued that with the advent of the 4th industrial revolution and 6th technological order, these classifications do not fully correspond to the actual situation, especially with regard to changes that, so the author, can be more adequately expressed in the concept of “precarious employment”. In this regard, its definition is given, its features are described and explained. It is emphasized that precarious employment has various degrees of its severity, in connection with which its criteria are characterized.

employment; precarious employment; standard and precarious employment; formal and informal employment; typical and atypical employment


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Content No 8, 2020