All-Russian National Identity: Searching for Definition and Distribution Dynamics
Dr. Sci. (Hist.), Chief Researcher, Head of the Center for the Study of Interethnic Relations, Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS; Professor-Researcher, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
The paper was funded by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant No. 20-011-00241.
The article is devoted to the formation of all-Russian identity in an ethno-cultural complex society. The article analyzes the main debates in the scientific and socio-political community about the understanding of integrating identity. Changes in its interpretation in the “Strategy of state national policy for the period up to 2025“ and competing interpretations of all-Russian identity during the discussion of the amendments to the 1993 Constitution are shown. On the basis of the most representative Russian studies – Russian monitoring of the economic situation and public health (RLMS-HSE), Institute of Sociology FCTAS RAS and FADN–WCIOM, author shows development of all-Russian national identity in the 2000s, main socio-demographic profiles of people who have actualized national identity, their focus on interethnic consent and trust. The author argues for the compatibility of all-Russian and ethnic identity under the condition of their nonhyperbolization. It is proved that the interpretation of integrating identity as all-Russian civic identity has a basis in the everyday experience of people. At the same time, this identity is dynamic, it depends on the political and social conditions of the country. Ideas about citizenship, language, territory, history, and cultural community are changeable, not differentiated, and nominal for some in the population. Efforts are required from the state and society to form and get their approval through education, media space and public activity.
Drobizheva L.M. (ed.) (2013) Civic, Ethnic and Regional Identity: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)
Drobizheva L.M. (2017) National Identity as a Means of Reducing Ethnic Negativism. Mir Rossii [Universe of Russia]. Vol. 26. No. 1: 7–31. (In Russ.)
Drobizheva L.M. (ed.) (2009) Russian Identity in Moscow and the Regions. Moscow: Institut Sotsiologii RAN; MAX Press, 2009. (In Russ.)
Drobizheva L.M., Ryzhova S.V. (2015) Civic and Ethnic Identity and Perception of the Preferable State in Russia. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya [Polis. Political Studies]. No. 5: 9–24. DOI: 10.17976/ jpps/2015.05.03. (In Russ.)
Malinova O.Yu. (2016) The Official Historical Narrative as a Part of Identity Policy of the Russian State: From the 1990s to the 2000s. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya [Polis. Political Studies]. No. 6: 139– 158. (In Russ.)
Pain E.A. (2004) Between the Empire and the Nation. The Modernist Project and its Traditionalist Alternative in the National Policy of Russia. Moscow: Novoe izdatel’stvo. (In Russ.)
Pantin V.I. (2011) National-Civilizational Identity: Specifics of Russia. Politicheskaya expertiza: POLITEX [Political Expertise: POLITEX]. Vol. 7. No. 2: 42–51. (In Russ.)
Semenenko I.S. (2016) Identity Politics and Identities in Politics: Interethnic Perspectives in a European Context. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya [Polis. Political Studies]. No. 4: 8–28. DOI: 10.17976/ jpps/2016.04.03. (In Russ.)
Semenenko I.S. (ed.) (2017) Identity: The Individuals, Society, and Politics. An Encyclopedia. Moscow: Ves’ Mir. (In Russ.)
Semenenko I.S., Lapkin V.V., Bardin A.L., Pantin V.I. (2017) Between the State and the Nation: Dilemmas of Identity Policy in Post-Soviet Societies. Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya [Polis. Political Studies]. No. 5: 54–78. DOI: 10.17976/jpps/2017.05.05. (In Russ.)
Sevostyanov A. (2008) Russian National State: “Paradise for Their Own” or “Shop of Ridiculous Horrors”? Politicheskiy klass [Political Class]. No. 41: 85–100. (In Russ.)
Tishkov V.A. (1996) About the Nation and Nationalism. Svobodnaya mysl’ [Free Thought]. No. 3: 30–42. (In Russ.)
Tishkov V. (2009) National Identity (About Sense of Debates). Vestnik Rossijskoy natsii [Bulletin of the Russian Nation]. No. 1(3): 107–117. (In Russ.)
Tishkov V. (2008) The Nation and National Identity in Russia. Vestnik Rossijskoy natsii [Bulletin of the Russian Nation]. No. 1: 120–128. (In Russ.)
Van der Meer T., Tolsma J. (2016) Ethnic Diversity and its Effect on Social Cohesion. In: Pokrovsky N., Efremenko D. (eds) Sociological Yearbook, 2015–2016. Moscow: INION RAN: 48–57.