A Sampling Survey of the Terek Cossack Troops Stanitsa Mode of Life (1875–1880). Part II

A Sampling Survey of the Terek Cossack Troops Stanitsa Mode of Life (1875–1880). Part II

Obraztsov I.V.

Dr. Sci. (Sociol.), Prof., the Department of Sociology, Head of Sociological Laboratory, Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia igorobraztsov@rambler.ru

ID of the Article:

For citation:

Obraztsov I.V. A Sampling Survey of the Terek Cossack Troops Stanitsa Mode of Life (1875–1880). Part II. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2021. No 4. P. 95-106


In Russia in the 1870–1880s, when the development of empirical sociology was out of the question, statistical surveys of the population on the widest range of socio-economic issues were actively carried out by provincial and regional administrations, and later, in cooperation with them – by zemstvo’s institutions. And if the activities of the zemstvo statistical bodies that functioned in some provinces of the European part of the Russian Empire have been sufficiently studied, the results of studies of the provincial (regional) statistical committees, covering almost all regions of the Russian Empire, still to remain outside the field of scientific analysis. The article to a certain extent fills this gap, considering the methods and results of the activities of its employees, their contribution to the development of research procedures, in particular, pioneering practice of the sampling method application, using the example of the Terek Regional Statistical Committee. The focus is on the organization and results of a survey on the study of the life of the Terek Cossack troops on the example of 12 “typical” villages, conducted under the leadership of N.A. Blagoveshchensky in 1875–1880. The article substantiates the conclusion about extensive practice of statistical surveys of rural life in the last third of the 19th century as a unique feature and indisputable achievement of domestic statistics, its contribution to the development of world statistical science, as well as a pre-sociological stage of empirical research in Russia.

sample method; empirical sociology; Cossacks; statistical surveys; Terek Cossack army; village life


Blagoveshchensky N. (ed.) (1878) Collection of Information about the Terek Region. Iss. I. Vladikavkaz: Terskoye oblastnoye pravleniye. (In Russ.)

Blagoveshchensky N. (ed.) (1881) Statistical Monographs of the Study of the Terek Cossack Host Stanitsa’s Everyday Life. Vladikavkaz: Terskoye oblastnoye pravleniye. (In Russ.)

Didier E. (2002) Sampling and Democracy: Representativeness in the First United Surveys. Science in Context. Vol. 15. No. 3: 427–445. DOI: 10.1017/S0269889702000558.

Fienberg S.E., Tanur J. (2001) Sample Surveys, History of... In: Smelser J.J. Baltes P.B. (eds) International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 13453–13458.

Glinoetskiy N.P. (1882) The Nikolaevsky Academy of the General Staff: Historical Review. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya Shtaba voysk Gvardii i Peterburgskogo voyennogo okruga. (In Russ.)

Gozulov A.I. (1972) Essays on the History of National Statistics. Moscow: Statistika. (In Russ.)

Guriev A.A. (1921) The Origin of the Sample Research and its First Experiments in Russia. Vestnik statistiki [Bulletin of Statistics]. No. 1–4: 1–48. (In Russ.)

Journal of the Terek Region Statistical Committee Meetings. (1875) Terskie Vedomosti. No. 47: 2–3. (In Russ.)

Kaufman A.A. (1911) Revisiting the Sample Research. St. Petersburg: Tipografia M.M. Stasyulevicha. (In Russ.)

Kazbek G.N. (1888) Military Statistical Description of the Terek Region. 2nd ed. Tiflis: Shtab Kavkazskogo voyennogo okruga. (In Russ.)

Kolubeiko A. (1877) Statistical Information on the Prokhladnaya Stanitsa of the Terek Cossack Host. Terskie Vedomosti. No. 6: 3–4. (In Russ.

Mespoulet M. (2002) From Typical Areas to Random Sampling Methods in Russia from 1875 to 1930. Science in Context. Vol. 15. No. 3: 411–425. DOI: 10.1017/S0269889702000546.

Mezhov V. (1873) Proceedings of the Central and Provincial Statistical Committees: Bibliographic Catalog. St. Petersburg: Tipografia V. Bezobrazova & Ko. (In Russ.)

Popko I.D. (1880) Terek Cossacks since Elder Times: Historical Essay. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya Departamenta udelov. (In Russ.)

Rzhevusky L.A. (1888) ‘Tertsy’: Collection of Historical, Household and Geographic-Statistical Information on the Terek Cossack Host. Vladikavkaz: Terskoye oblastnoye pravleniye. (In Russ.)

Seng Y.P. (1951) Historical Survey of the Development of Sampling Theories and Practice. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General). Vol. 114. No. 2: 214–231. DOI: 10.2307/2980977.

Content No 4, 2021