“Identities Portfolio” of the Youth of the Southern Russia After 12 Years
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Prof., Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Centre of RAS, Rostov-on-Don, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Prof., North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russia email@example.com
The article was supported by he article was supported by RFBR, grant No. 20-011-00132.
The changes in the identification sphere of young people in the South of Russia are studied. The analysis is based on the comparison of mass surveys in 2009 and 2021, the effectiveness of identity politics in the region is evaluated. The hypothesis of the study was that at the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century, the all-Russian identity has significantly strengthened compared to the end of the first decade, and this would allow to move from assessing the situation as a “competition of identities” to their complementarity. The hypothesis was partially confirmed. The importance of all socio-cultural identities that make up the “portfolio of identities” of the youth of Russian South has noticeably decreased. Indirectly, this indicates the stabilization of the ethno-social and ethno-political situation – the mobilizing character of the identity has been reduced. However, no significant dynamics in strengthening the all-Russian identity was revealed. If ethnic Russian respondents demonstrated the equivalence of the all-Russian and ethnic identities, the respondents – representatives of the Caucasian peoples showed the persisting imbalance between the key socio-cultural identities – the all-Russian and ethnic – in favor of the ethnic one, and over 12 years the imbalance has increased. A shift from formal markers (citizenship) of the all-Russian identity to substantive ones (feeling of belonging to all-Russian history and culture) was found out, which was interpreted as a trend towards the formation of a Russian civilizational identity. This is also evidenced by the growth of the number of respondents who perceive Russia as a bridge between the civilizations of the West and the East. It is concluded that, in the presence of positive trends in identification processes among the youth of the South of Russia, the refusal to evaluate the situation as a “competition of identities” would be too premature, and the identity politics in the region cannot be considered sufficiently effective.
AdievA.Z., Shcherbina E.A. (2021) All-Russian Identity in the North Caucasus: pro et contra. Vestnik rossijskoj nacii [Bulletin of the Russian nation]. No. 3: 54–63. (In Russ.)
Atlaskirov A.R. (2021) The problem of establishment of All-Russian Identity in multinational regions of North Caucasus. Politika i Obshhestvo [Politics and Society]. No. 1: 26–32. DOI: 10.7256/2454- 0684.2021.1.34728. (In Russ.)
Avdeev E.A., Vorobev S.M. (2021) Russian civic Identity of Youth in the North Caucasus: the main challenges and risks of conflict. Politicheskaya ekspertiza: POLITEKS [Political Expertise: POLITEX]. No. 1: 69–86. DOI: 10.21638/spbu23.2021.106. (In Russ.)
AvksentevV.A. (2020) “A new type district”: regional transformation and dynamics of ethno-political processes in the North Caucasus. Society and Security Insights. No. 2: 41–54. DOI: 10.14258/ssi(2020)2-02. (In Russ.)
Avksentev V.A., Aksiumov B.V. (2010) Youth of the southern Russia: a set of identities under conditions of civilization choice. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 12: 18–27. (In Russ.)
Brubaker R. (1999) The Manichean myth: rethinking the distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. In: Kriesl H. et al. (eds) Nation and National Identity: The European Experience in Perspective. Zurich: Verlag Ruegger: 55–71.
Coakley J. (2018) National identity and the “Kohn dichotomy”. Nationalities Papers. The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity. Vol. 46. No. 2: 252–271. DOI: 10.1080/00905992.2017.1360267.
Denisova G.S., Klimenko L.V. (2011) South Russian identity: a missed opportunity to integrate the region’s multicultural region. Izvestiya vysshix uchebnyx zavedenij. Severo-Kavkazskij region. Obschestvennye nauki [Bulletin of higher education institutes. Northern-Caucasus region. Social sciences]. No. 6: 29–33. (In Russ.)
Drobizheva L.M. (2020) Russian Identity: searching for definition and distribution dynamics. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 8: 37–50. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009460-9. (In Russ.)
Elias N. (2001) The Society of individuals. Moscow: Praksis. (In Russ.) Gorshkov M.K. (2017) The Harmonization of interethnic relations in the post-reform Russia: context approach. Gumanitarij Yuga Rossii [Humanities of the South of Russia]. No. 2: 14–25. (In Russ.)
Ilyuk E.V. (2019) Youth as a risk group and basic manipulation techniques when involving in extremist organizations. Viktimologiya [Victimology]. No. 3: 26–35. (In Russ.)
Kuzio T. (2002) The myth of the civic state: a critical survey of Hans Kohn’s framework for understanding nationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 25 No. 1: P. 20–39. DOI: 10.1080/01419870120112049.
Kymlicka W. (1999) Misunderstanding Nationalism. In: Beiner R. (ed.) Theorizing Nationalism. SUNY Series in Political Theory. New York: State University of New York Press: 131–140.
Lindstam E., Mader M., Schoen H. (2021) Conceptions of National Identity and Ambivalence towards Immigration. British Journal of Political Science. Vol. 51. No. 1: 93–114. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123418000522.
Popkov Y.V. (2019) State national Policy of Russia: problems and conceptual lacunas. Politicheskaya ekspertiza: POLITEKS [Political Expertise: POLITEX]. No. 3: 345–366. DOI: 10.21638/11701/ spbu23.2019.30. (In Russ.)
Ryzhova S.V. (2018) The Content and Dynamics of Ethnic Identity in Russia. In: TishkovV.A., Stepanov V.V. (eds) Etnicheskoe i religioznoe mnogoobrazie Rossii [Ethnic and Religious Diversity in Russia]. Moscow: IEA RAN: 119–135. (In Russ.)
Tabachnik M. (2019) Untangling liberal democracy from territoriality: from ethnic/civic to ethnic/territorial nationalism. Nations and Nationalism. Vol. 25. No. 1: 191–207. DOI: 10.1111/nana.12428.
Tishkov V.A. (2018a) Introduction. In: Tishkov V.A., Stepanov V.V. (eds) Etnicheskoe i religioznoe mnogoobrazie Rossii [Ethnic and Religious Diversity in Russia]. Moscow: IEA RAN: 5–10. (In Russ.)
Tishkov V.A. (2018b) Changing concepts of ethno-politics in Russia (from Gorbachev to Putin). Vestnik rossijskoj nacii [Bulletin of the Russian nation]. No. 6: 9–30. (In Russ.)
Yack B. (1996) The myth of the civic nation. Critical Review. A Journal of Politics and Society. Vol. 10. No. 2: 193–211. DOI: 10.1080/08913819608443417.