Working Hours and Social Guarantees of the Precariat (a Comparative Analysis)

Working Hours and Social Guarantees of the Precariat (a Comparative Analysis)

Аnisimov R.I.

Cand. Sci. (Sociol.), Dean of the Faculty of Sociology, Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

ID of the Article:

The article is written with the support Russian Science Foundation Grant № 18-18-00024.

For citation:

Аnisimov R.I. Working Hours and Social Guarantees of the Precariat (a Comparative Analysis). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2022. No 11. P. 100-111


The article is devoted to a comparative analysis of the working hours of the core of the precariat – informally employed workers with employees registered on the terms of an indefinite contract. Based on empirical research data, it has been revealed that precariums have longer working hours, which is presumably compensated by higher wages of low-skilled groups of precariums. However, in addition to longer working hours, the precariat, unlike officially employed employees, is excluded from the system of social guarantees. This social exclusion qualitatively distinguishes the precariat from other employees. The employer, extracting additional income from the precarious state of the employee shifts social obligations towards the latter to society. The author of the article believes that the most relevant term denoting this situation is the concept of “rent” – as the extraction of income without labor activity. The process of rent extraction by the employer on the one hand and the precarization of the worker on the other hand has a social nature and characterizes a new stage of capitalism, in which there is a purposeful removal of institutional restrictions on the fulfillment of the main function of capitalism – profit-making.

working time; precariat; employer; employee; social exclusion; rent; capitalism


Anisimov R.I. (2019) Precarious employment in Russia: specifying major indicators. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia [Sociological Studies]. No. 9: 64–72. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250006652-0. (In Russ.)

Bobkov V.N. ed. (2018) Unstable Employment in Russian Federation: Theory and Methodology of Identification, Evaluation and Reduction. Moscow: KNORUS. (In Russ.)

Jørgensen M. (2016) Precariat – What it Is and Isn’t – Towards an Understanding of What it Does. Critical Sociology. No. 42 (7–8): 959–974. DOI: 10.1177/0896920515608925.

Kapelyushnikov R. (2001) Russian Labour Market: Adaptation without Restructuring. Ekonomicheskaya sociologiya [Journal of Economic Sociology]. Vol. 2. No. 2: 5–22. (In Russ.)

Kuchenkova A.V. (2019) Precarious employment: Methodology of measurement Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta druzhby narodov. Seriya: Sociologiya [RUDN Journal of Sociology]. Vol. 19. No. 1: 134–143. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2019-19-1-134-143. (In Russ.)

Kuchenkova A.V. (2022) Employment Precarization and Subjective Well-Being of Employees in Different Age Groups. Sotsiologicheskiy Zhurnal [Sociological Journal]. Vol. 28. No. 1: 101–120. DOI: https://doi. org/10.19181/socjour.2022.28.1.8840. (In Russ.)

Livanos I., Tzika E. (2022) Precarious employment in Greece: economic crisis, labour market flexibilisation, and vulnerable workers in: Hellenic Observatory Discussion Papers on Greece and Southeast Europe. Paper № 171. URL: (accessed 05.06.22).

Melin H., Blom R. (2015) Precarity in Different Worlds of Social Classes in: The New Social Division. Making and Unmaking Precariousness. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9781137509352.

Mikołajczak P (2022) Determinants of precarious employment in social enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 146: 398–408. DOI: jbusres.2022.03.085.

Popov A. (2020) From precarious employment to the precariat. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia [Sociological Studies]. No. 6: 155–160. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009300-3. (In Russ.)

Popov A., Soloveva T. (2020) Employment precarization: an analysis of academic discourse on the essence and ways of measuring. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia [Sociological Studies]. No. 9: 103–103. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009618-2. (In Russ.)

Shevchenko I.O. (2021) Employment in science: Gender Context. RSUH/RGGU Bulletin. “Philosophy. Sociology. Art Studies” Series, No. 1 (part 2): 218–230, DOI: 10.28995/2073-6401-2021-1-218-230. (In Russ.)

Standing G. (2014) The Precariat. The new dangerous class. Moscow: Ad marginem press. (In Russ.)

Toschenko Zh. (2020) General and specific criteria for precarious employment: empirical analysis. Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia [Sociological Studies]. No. 9: 90–102. DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009905-8. (In Russ.)

Toschenko Zh. ed. (2020) Precariat: The emergence of a new class (collective monograph). Moscow: Center for Social Forecasting and Marketing publ. (In Russ.)

Toschenko Zh. (ed.) (2021) Precarious employment: beginnings, criteria, features. Moscow: Ves’ Mir. (In Russ.)

Wright E.O. (2016) Is the precariat a class? Global Labour Journal. No. 7 (2): 123–135. DOI: 10.15173/glj. V7i2.258.

Wright E.O. (ed.) (2019) Approaches to class analysis. Kyiv: Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. (In Russ.)

Yurasov I.A., Tanina M.A., Yudina V.A., Kuznetsova E.V. (2021) The state and development trends of the informal services market in the Russia in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vestnik universiteta. No. 8: 97–106. DOI: 10.26425/1816-4277-2021-8-97-106. (In Russ.)

Fishman L.G., Mart’yanov V.S., Davydov D.A. (2019) Rental society: in the shadow of labor, capital and democracy. Moscow: HSE Publishing House. (In Russ.)

Content No 11, 2022