Bologna Experience: Successes and Doubts
Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Head of the Center for Sociology of Education and Science of the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Professor of the Department of Philosophy, Sociology and Law named after G.S. Arefieva, Moscow, Russia. Kliucharev@mail.ru
Cand. Sci. (Sociol.), Leading Researcher at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
The expected formal withdrawal of Russian higher education from the Bologna process raises the question of assessing the experience gained in this area over two decades. The question of the possibility and expediency of using this experience in the further development of existing education is of high relevance. The article uses data from the monitoring of the Bologna process in education management bodies, in higher and secondary educational institutions, as well as among their administrations and teaching staff. Specific data were obtained by a joint study of the Center for the Sociology of Science and Education of the Federal Research Sociological Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Center for Social Forecasting LLC (N=3677, October 2021) For three subsamples of graduates: bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, specialty – the following indicators were analyzed: employment in the received specialty, expected and actual wages, readiness for additional and continuing education. An assessment and forecast of the applicability in the conditions of modern Russian realities of such “Bologna” practices as the creation of National research universities, the Unified State Examination, GIFO, educational lending, intra-country educational migration and inter-university exchanges, overcoming inequalities and the availability of quality education.
Belyakov S.A. (2016) Evaluation of the contribution of higher and secondary vocational education to the economy of Russian regions. Moscow: Delo. (In Russ.)
Bulatova G.A. (2020) Employment of graduates of higher educational institutions: an analytical review of statistical data and research materials. Ekonomika. Professiya. Biznes. [Economics. Profession. Business]. 2020. Vol. 3: 14–20. DOI: 10.14258/epb201981. (In Russ.)
Burganova I.N., Farus O.A. (2021) Multilevel higher education in the Russian Federation: state and problems. Problemy sovremennogo pedagogicheskogo obrazovaniya. [Problems of modern pedagogical education]. Vol. 71, Part 1: 53–56. (In Russ.)
Clarke M., Luna-Bazaldua D. (2021) Primer on Large-Scale Assessments of Educational Achievement. National Assessments of Educational Achievement. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Dneprov E.D. (2006) Education and politics (in 2 volumes). Moscow: Marios. (In Russ.)
Dneprov E.D. (2011) Russian education in the XIX – early XX century. (in 2 volumes). Moscow: Marios. (In Russ.)
Dobrenkova E.V. (2007) Problems of Russia’s entry into the Bologna process. Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological research]. No. 6: 102–105. (In Russ.)
Dobrynina M.V. (2019) State policy in the field of engineering education: traditions and modernity. Moscow: Triumph Publishing House, Best Books. (In Russ.)
Education in numbers. (2020) Brief statistical collection. L.M. Gokhberg, ed. Moscow: HSE Publishing House. (In Russ.)
Gorshkov M.K., Sheregi F.E. (2010) Modernization of Russian education: problems and prospects. Moscow: Center for Social Forecasting. (In Russ.)
Kamensky E.G. (2021) Corruption risks of modernization of the higher education in a sociocultural context of modern Russia: theoretical sketch. Mir nauki. Sociologiya, filologiya, kul’turologiya. [World of Science. Series: Sociology, Philology, Cultural Studies]. URL: https://sfk-mn.ru/PDF/29KLSK221.pdf (In Russ.)
Kliucharev G. (1999) New Challenges in Adult Learning Policy in Russia / Post-school Education and the Transition from State Socialism / Ed. by James Muckle and W. John Morgan. Nottingham: Continuing education press.
Kliucharev G., Neverov A. (2018) Project «5–100»: some intermediate results. Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: Sociologiya [RUDN Journal of Sociology]. No. 1: 100–116. DOI: 10.22363/2313-2272-2018-18-1-100-116. (In Russ.)
Kurbatova M.V., Donova I.V., Kranzeeva E.A., Leukhova M.G. (2022) Educational migration in resource-type regions. Mir Rossii. [Universe of Russia]. Vol. 31. No. 1: 91–112. DOI: 10.17323/1811-038Х-2022-31-1-91-112. (In Russ.)
Kuzminov Ya.I., Yudkevich M.I. (2022) Universities in Russia: how it works. Moscow: HSE Publishing House. (In Russ.)
Malikova V.V. (2021) Using the potential of the human capital of pre-retirees in solving the problem of reducing unemployment and employment of students and university graduates: theoretical aspects. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Tomsk State University Bulletin. Economy]. Vol. 54: 158–169. DOI: 10.17223/19988648/54/8. (In Russ.)
Okunkova E.A. (2017) Integral assessment of higher education. Humanitarian technologies and intellectual leadership. Gumanitarnyye tekhnologii i intellektual’noye liderstvo [Humanitarian technologies and intellectual leadership]. Moscow: EU im. G.V. Plekhanov: 155–159. (In Russ.)
Rado P. (2001) Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries. Budapest: Open Society Institute.
Rado P. (2011) Governing Decentralized Education Systems: Systemic Change in South Eastern Europe. Budapest: Open Society Institute.
Shirinkina E.V., Kelchevskaya N.R. (2020) System «Tuning of educational structures» in the formation of a single educational space. Sovremennoye obrazovaniye [Modern education]. Vol. 1: 33–52. DOI: 10.25136/2409- 8736.2020.1.31911. (In Russ.)
Sukhodolov A.P., Anokhov I.V., Mikhaleva E.O. (2019) University Science. Internal opportunities for stimulating scientific activity in Russian universities. Ekonomika nauki. [Economics of Science]. Vol. 2: 129–142. (In Russ.)
Trifankov Y.T., Rafienko Е.N. (2000) University and Russian society: 30–90 years of the 20th century. Bryansk: BSTU. (In Russ.)
Uporov I.V. (2020) Scientific and pedagogical freedom and standards in universities: the problem of correlation within the framework of a single educational process. Obshchestvo: sotsiologiya, psikhologiya, pedagogika [Society: sociology, psychology, pedagogy]. Vol. 8: 78–83. (In Russ.)
World Bank. World Development Report – From Plan to Market. (1996) New York: Oxford Univ. Press.